Does Every Book Need an ISBN?

ISBNs: Their Purpose, How the Industry Uses Them, and FAQs

By Laura Dawson, Bowker, the US ISBN Registration Agency

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) system was invented in the 1960s, when British bookseller W. H. Smith began computerizing its distribution system. It became an ISO standard in 1970, and now the ISBN forms the backbone of the book supply chain around the world. Certainly there are plenty of books published that do not have ISBNs. Proprietary publications that are not traded, for example, don’t require ISBNs. Books that are sold in “walled garden” environments don’t require ISBNs. So why use them?

  • Most physical bookstores still require an ISBN. Bookstore databases are set up so that the ISBN links to critical information about the book – such as the price –enables bar code scanning at the cash register.
  • Library cataloguers prefer them. An ISBN definitively states, in a standardized way, that one edition of a book is different from another. This eliminates confusion.
  • Search engines prefer them – for much the same reason that library cataloguers do. Accuracy is crucial for search engines, and the ISBN ensures that a book is uniquely identified. Your book listings will be ranked higher if you use ISBNs to identify your titles.
  • Books with ISBNs are included in Books in Print. This is a database of all books with ISBNs, which is licensed by online bookstores, libraries, search engines, and social networking sites. If your book has an ISBN, its listing will be made available to all licensees of Books in Print (which includes vast library systems, search engines, and most online booksellers). If your book does not have an ISBN, you will have to approach each outlet separately to ask them to list your title.
  • ISBNs denote the official publisher of the book. If you are using ISBNs supplied by a self-publishing company, rather than applying for your own, that self-publishing company will be listed as the publisher of the book. Some libraries and bookstores refuse to list those titles (they exclude them from their Books in Print feed), and some distributors refuse to carry those books as well. Being officially listed as the publisher of your own book, with your own ISBN prefix, means that you have entry into more retail and library outlets.
  • Essentially, an ISBN is a marketing tool. It makes your book’s journey through the supply chain much smoother, adds credibility and professionalism, and differentiates it from other books with similar titles or subject matter.

When working with authors and publishers, especially self-published authors, there are a host of ISBNrelated questions often asked:


Is Bowker the only place I can get an ISBN?

Bowker is the US ISBN Registration Agency. Each country has its own ISBN Registration Agency, as part of the ISBN standard ratified by ISO. If you are in the United States, your ISBNs come from Bowker.

I just got my ISBN. Now what do I do?

Enter your metadata! Metadata is the information about your book—title, author, price, subject category, description, etc. My Identifiers allows you to enter all the relevant metadata about your book, and update/correct it as needed. The metadata then gets sent out in a data feed to all the major search engines and most bookstores (online and brick-and-mortar), as well as to thousands of libraries. Keeping your metadata accurate and current is probably the best thing you can do to market your book.

It says on My Identifiers that I have to be a publisher to buy ISBNs. I am a self-published author and don’t have a company name. Does that mean I can’t buy? 

If you are publishing a book, you are a publisher. You don't need a corporate entity to purchase ISBNs. You can purchase them under your own name, or create a name for yourself as a publisher, e.g. "Laura Dawson Publishing." This name does not need to be registered in any way.

Do I purchase my ISBN before or after I get my copyright?

Your book is protected under copyright as soon as it is written. ISBNs can be bought at nearly any stage of the book publishing process. These are two different systems.

Can I get my ISBN from Canada instead of the US?

If your publishing company has a primary billing address that is Canadian, yes - in fact, you should. If your publishing company is located in the US, you must purchase your ISBNs from Bowker. The ISBN standard specifies that the publisher must obtain ISBNs from the registration agency in the publisher's own country.

How do I get an e-ISBN?

There is no such thing as an e-ISBN. ISBNs are ISBNs—some identify physical products in the book supply chain, others identify digital products in the book supply chain. Vendors who ask for information about your e-ISBNs are using incorrect terminology…they simply want the ISBNs of your digital products.

I am changing the price and/or cover of my book. Do I need a new ISBN?

Not necessarily. A new ISBN is warranted only when the changes mean that the changed product is distinctly different from the previous version and customers would be confused.

When you buy ISBNs these days, you get the ability to upload descriptors—the metadata about your books. ISBNs plus metadata are extremely powerful tools. Combining them assures that search results unambiguously turn up the products they are supposed to turn up…and readers won’t get the wrong number.

Laura Dawson is Product Manager for Identifier Services at Bowker. She is editor of the website ( Bowker has just released their annual report on the self-publishing market, which you can access here: ( 

21 Responses

  1. I took on a co-author for one of my books. I had the co-author upload the book on Amazon. He failed to get a free ISBN # assigned to the book at that time. Would I now have to pay for one if I want it? I do want one. Therefore, please provide a link as to where I need to purchase the ISBN #, if need be. Thank you.
  2. Thanks for this information. I've used Smashwords in the past. Now I know how to get my "independent publisher one". I'm doing short reads so buying an ISBN one at a time didn't feel cost effective.
  3. Bil
    My problem with Bowkers and the entire ISBN industry is that it is extremely overpriced and I don't see libraries and bookstores jumping at the opportunity to pick up an Indie Publisher any more than they will Amazon or Smashwords. Additionally, I think that as self-publishing becomes even stronger and traditional publishing weakens, bookstores and libraries will be forced to put books with Amazon or Smashwords ISBN's on their shelves in order to compete and provide what their clients are asking for.
  4. I find the bowkers/my identifiers system easy to use and the staff have been wonderfully helpful when I've had questions about meta tag data and the like. Since the meta tag data is helpful for other reasons - It has made it easier to get eBooks uniformly coded for other purposes as well.
  5. Smith Publicity
    Hi Susan! Thanks for reading. Here is the answer to your question from the author of the article, Laura: "The author can go to and get one, or talk to the publisher of the book (if it’s self-published, then she should work with her platform or go to MyIdentifiers)."
  6. Smith Publicity
    Thanks for reading. I would reach out to Bowker for more information about ISBN numbers.
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